#NEXUS [!This data set was downloaded from TreeBASE, a relational database of phylogenetic knowledge. TreeBASE has been supported by the NSF, Harvard University, Yale University, SDSC and UC Davis. Please do not remove this acknowledgment from the Nexus file. Generated on June 05, 2020; 17:09 GMT TreeBASE (cc) 1994-2008 Study reference: Beutel R.G., Friedrich F., Hörnschemeyer T., Pohl H., Hünefeld F., Beckmann F., Meier R., Misof B., Whiting M., & Vilhelmsen L. 2011. Morphological and molecular evidence converge upon a robust phylogeny of the megadiverse Holometabola. Cladistics, 27: 341-355. TreeBASE Study URI: http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S11976] BEGIN TAXA; TITLE Taxa1; DIMENSIONS NTAX=34; TAXLABELS Agathiphagidae Bibionidae Bittacidae Boreus Caeciliusidae Caurinus Chrysopidae Corydalidae Culicidae Cupedidae Diprionidae Eriocraniidae Helophoridae Inocelliidae Limnephilidae Mengenillidae Micropterigidae Nannochoristidae Nevrorthidae Ommatidae Osmylidae Panorpidae Pteronarcyidae Pulicidae Raphidiidae Rhyacophilidae Sialidae Tenthredinidae Tettigoniidae Tipulidae Trachypachidae Xenidae Xyelidae Zorotypidae ; END; BEGIN CHARACTERS; [! TreeBASE Matrix URI: http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/matrix/TB2:M10442] TITLE CLA_338_sm_HolometAppIV; LINK TAXA = Taxa1; DIMENSIONS NCHAR=356; FORMAT DATATYPE=Standard SYMBOLS= "0 1 2 3 4 5" MISSING=? GAP= -; CHARSTATELABELS 1 Orientation_of_head / orthognathous prognathous_or_slightly_inclined, 2 'Shape of anterior (dorsal) side of head' / distinctly_convex 'very slightly convex or flat, nearly parallel to ventral (posterior) side', 3 Neck_region / absent distinctly_developed, 4 Split_cranial_setae / absent present, 5 Lateral_eyes / 'well developed, with or without crystalline cones' 'distinctly reduced, with ca. 10 ommatidia and lacking a corn' well_developed_stemmata stemmata_closely_aggregated 'strongly reduced, 1-2 stemmata or single eyespot', 6 Number_of_retinula_cells_in_ommatidia_or_stemmata / less_than_15 15_or_more, 7 Paired_ocelli / absent present, 8 'Transverse facial strengthening line (frontoclypeal suture)' / absent_or_only_vaguely_indicated present_and_distinct, 9 Division_of_clpyeal_area_into_anteclyepus_and_postclypeus / absent present, 10 Shape_of_clypeal_part_anterad_of_transverse_strengthening_line / broader_than_long 'longer than wide, trapezoid, anteriorly converging', 11 Occipital_furrow / absent present, 12 Gula / absent undivided_sclerotized_quadrangular_gula strongly_narrowed_gula, 13 Hypostomal_bridge / absent 'present, not sperated from genal area' 'present, distinctly separated from genal area', 14 Posterior_tentorial_grooves / close_to_hind_margin_of_head_capsule shifted_anterad, 15 Dorsal_tentorial_arm / 'well developed, sclerotized' 'strongly reduced and ligament-like or absent', 16 Shape_of_tentorium / 'not X-shaped, without constriction between ant and post arms' 'X-shaped, with distinct constriction between ant and post arms' largely_or_completely_reduced, 17 Dorsoventral_muscle_spanning_foramen_occipitale / absent present, 18 Articulation_of_labrum / free fused_with_clypeus, 19 Exposure_of_anterior_epipharynx / not_exposed slightly_exposed distinctly_exposed, 20 M._frontolabralis_with_attachment_to_external_wall_of_labrum / absent present, 21 M._frontoepipharyngalis / absent 'present, inserted on tormae or posterolaterally on epipharynx' 'present, inserted close to median line' 'present, attached to messores', 22 Antennal_segmentation / 'multisegmented, with antenommeres distinctly separated' 'pseudo-multisegmented, with mid-segment subdivided' '5-7 antennomeres' 4_antennomeres 3_antennomeres less_than_3_antennomeres, 23 Sensorium_on_antepenultimate_antennomere / absent present, 24 'Specialised terminal seta of flagellum (FITS)' / absent present, 25 Number_of_extrinsic_antennal_muscles / 4. 3. 2. 1. 0., 26 'Intrinsic antennal muscles (Mm. scapopedicellaris)' / absent present, 27 Mola / absent_or_strongly_reduced present, 28 Articulated_lacinia_mobilis / absent present, 29 'Mandibulo-maxillary sucking apparatus' / absent present, 30 Poison_channel_of_maxillary_stylet / absent present, 31 Position_of_maxilla / retracted 'protracted, cardines at level of prementum, max groove absen', 32 Maxillolabial_complex / absent present, 33 Shape_of_the_proximal_parts_of_the_maxilla / not_transverse transverse, 34 'Posteromesal process of cardo/proximal element of the maxilla' / absent present, 35 Galea_and_lacinia / present_as_discrete_structures extensively_or_completely_united, 36 Stipital_flexor_muscles_of_lacinia_and_galea / both_present one_muscle absent, 37 M._craniocardinalis / well_developed absent, 38 Maxillary_palp / absent present, 39 M._craniodististipitalis / absent present, 40 M._submentopraementalis / absent present, 41 M._praementoparaglossalis / absent present, 42 M._praementoglossalis / absent present, 43 Apical_prelabial_region / without_process_or_extension_or_with_short_unsclerotised_ligula 'with wedge-shaped, strongly sclerotised ligula' sclerotised_prelabial_extension_distinctly_developed together_with_hypopharynx_foming_compact_lobe_with_salivary_, 44 Salivary_duct / absent well_developed 'strongly narrowed, without recognisable lumen', 45 Cervix / absent present, 46 Legs / absent present, 47 Number_of_leg_segments / more_than_4 3., 48 Claws / double single absent, 49 Larval_segment_XI / absent present, 50 'Retractile prolegs on segments II-VII' / absent present, 51 'Conical ventral protuberances on segments I-VIII' / absent present, 52 Setiferous_lateral_filaments / absent present, 53 Cerci / absent present, 54 Urogomphi_on_segment_IX / absent present, 55 Terminal_hooks / absent single_hook_on_fleshy_lobes_of_segment_X single_hook_on_subdivided_prolegs_with_scerotised_elements double_hooks_on_unsclerotised_proleg, 56 Malpighian_tubules / all_free several_cryptonephric_malpighian_tubules, 57 Larval_habitat / terrestrial semiaquatic aquatic, 58 Endoparasitism_of_larvae / absent present, 59 Movability_of_pupal_mandible / absent present, 60 Size_of_pupal_mandible / not_hypertrophied hypertrophied, 61 Exposure_of_posterior_head_region / fully_exposed at_least_partly_retracted, 62 Orientation_of_head / orthognathous proganthous_or_slightly_inclined, 63 Rostrum / absent_or_extremely_short 'elongated, not including maxillary and labial elements' 'elongated, including maxillary and labial elements', 64 Frontal_apodeme / absent present, 65 Shape_of_posterior_head_capsule / not_concave concave, 66 Postgenal_bridge / absent 'present, not delimited laterally' 'present, laterally delimited', 67 Dense_vestiture_of_microtrichia / absent present, 68 Clypeus / not_inflected inflected, 69 Shape_of_posterior_tentorium / 'not collar-like' 'collar-like' completely_absent, 70 Movability_of_labrum / absent present, 71 Mouthfield_sclerite / absent present, 72 'Labro-epipharyngeal food canal' / absent present, 73 M._frontolabralis / absent 'present, origin on frons' 'present, origin on clypeus', 74 M._frontoepipharyngalis / absent present, 75 Insertion_of_antenna / 'anteriorly between compound eyes, adjacent' 'anteriorly between compound eyes, not adjacent' laterally, 76 Number_of_antennomeres / more_than_11 '11 or less, flagellomeres not forming clava' '11 or less, flagellomeres forming clava' '8 or less, flagellomeres flabellate', 77 'Intercalary sclerite in lateral scapo-pedicellar membrane' / absent present, 78 Shape_and_size_of_mandible / 'not elongated and blade-like or lamelliform' 'elongated, flattened or lamelliform' 'blade-like', 79 Mandibular_mola / distinctly_developed strongly_reduced_or_absent, 80 Haustellum / absent present, 81 'Labio-maxillary complex' / absent present, 82 Dorsal_concavitiy_of_anterior_labium_for_reception_of_elements_of_the_paired_mouthparts / absent present, 83 Cardines / not_fused_to_labial_elements fused, 84 Fusion_of_stipites_and_anterior_postmentum / absent present, 85 Galea / vestigial_or_absent distinctly_developed, 86 Galea_enfolds_lateral_part_of_labrum_and_lateral_mandibular_base / absent present, 87 Shape_of_lacinia / 'not elongated and blade-like' 'elongated and blade-like', 88 Salivary_channel_of_lacinia / absent present, 89 Sensorium_on_3rd_maxillary_palpomere / absent present, 90 M._craniocardinalis / absent present, 91 Origin_of_M._tentoriocardinalis_and_M._tentoriostipitalis / tentorium frontoclypeal_region laterally_from_the_head_capsule, 92 Flexion_points_between_maxillary_palpomeres_1_and_2_and_3_and_4 / absent present, 93 Arched_sclerite_with_long_piliform_scales_formed_by_postlabium / absent present, 94 Internal_ridge_of_maxillolabial_plate_or_postlabium / absent present, 95 Number_of_labial_palpomeres / 3. 5. 2_or_less, 96 Secondary_subdivision_of_apical_labial_palpomere / absent indistinct 'distinct, appearing as two separate palpomeres', 97 Shape_of_apical_labial_palpomere / 'not spoon-shaped' 'spoon-shaped', 98 Paraglossae / 'vestigial or absent, without muscles' present, 99 M._praementoparagossalis / absent present, 100 M._praementoglossalis / absent present, 101 Size_of_Mm._praementopalpales / not_enlarged enlarged, 102 Sclerotised_sitophore_plate / absent present, 103 Epipharyngopharyngeal_lobe_reaching_into_pharynx_posteriorly / absent present, 104 Size_of_M._clypeopalatalis / not_enlarged 'enlarged, two major subcomponents and multiple bundles' arranged_as_a_longitudinal_row_of_small_bundles, 105 Transverse_muscle_of_the_epipharynx / absent present, 106 Precerebral_pharyngeal_pumping_chamber_within_chitinous_clasps / absent present, 107 Postcerebral_pharyngeal_pumping_apparatus / absent present, 108 Strongly_developed_intrinsic_muscle_of_salivarium / absent present, 109 Configuration_of_brain_and_suboesophageal_complex / distinctly_separated_by_the_circumoesophageal_connectives forming_a_compact_ganglionic_mass_around_the_pharynx, 110 Membranes_interconnecting_thoracic_sclerites / exposed 'reduced, not exposed', 111 Dorsal_cervical_sclerite / absent present, 112 Lateral_cervical_sclerite / absent single_pair_of_sclerites_present two_pairs_of_sclerites_present, 113 Posteromedian_corner_of_lateral_cervical_sclerite / not_protruding protruding_towards_prosternum 'fused in midline (forming a jugulare)', 114 Lateral_cervical_sclerite_and_propleuron / not_fused partly_fused entirely_fused, 115 Length_of_pronotum / shorter_than_pterothoracic_nota longer_than_pterothoracic_nota, 116 Lateral_connection_of_pronotum_and_propleuron / absent partly_or_completely_connected, 117 'Prothoracic-mesopleural connection' / absent pronotal_and_anterior_mesepisternal_process_connected posterior_propleuron_connected_to_anterior_mesepisternum pronotum_and_propleura_connected_by_intersegmental_sclerites, 118 Externally_visible_part_of_prothoracic_basisternum / small_or_absent large, 119 Prothoracic_precoxal_bridge / absent present 'basisternum and propleuron attached, but not fused', 120 Profurcal_arm_and_propleura / not_connected 'not fused, connected by muscle' firmly_fused specifically_articulated, 121 Profurca_with_free_dorsal_arms / absent present, 122 Prospina / absent present, 123 Protrochantin / absent distinctly_reduced well_developed fused_with_propleura, 124 'Antenna-cleaning apparatus of fore leg' / absent 'formed by pre-apical tibial spur and the distal part of the pr' 'formed by an apical tibial spur and the inner side of the pro-basitar' formed_by_2_protibial_spurs_and_a_comb_of_smaller_spines_between_t, 125 Movable_epiphysis_of_fore_tibia / absent present, 126 Relative_size_of_pterothoracic_segments / 'th2=th3' 'th2>th3' 'th2