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Citation for Study 11087

About Citation title: "Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of Growth Form in Cactaceae (Caryophyllales, Eudicotyledoneae).".
About Study name: "Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of Growth Form in Cactaceae (Caryophyllales, Eudicotyledoneae).".
About This study is part of submission 11077 (Status: Published).


Hernández-hernández T., Hernández H.M., De-nova A., Puente R., Eguiarte L.E., & Magallón S. 2011. Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of Growth Form in Cactaceae (Caryophyllales, Eudicotyledoneae). American Journal of Botany, 98: 44-61.


  • Hernández-hernández T.
  • Hernández H.M.
  • De-nova A.
  • Puente R.
  • Eguiarte L.E.
  • Magallón S. Phone 5255-5622-9087


Premise of the study: Cactaceae is one of the most charismatic plant families due to the extreme succulence and outstanding diversity of growth forms of its members. Although cacti are conspicuous elements of arid ecosystems throughout the American continent, and are model systems for ecological and anatomical studies; the evolutionary relationships and trends among lineages have been difficult to recognize because of the high morphological convergence, and the scarcity of phenotypic synapomorphies. Methods: We performed phylogenetic analyses implementing parsimony ratchet and likelihood methods, using plastid and nuclear markers (trnK/matK, matK, trnL-trnF, rpl16, and ppc), to infer evolutionary relationships within Cactaceae. We included 224 species representing approximately 85% of the family’s genera. The obtained phylogeny was used to perform an ancestral character reconstruction within Cactoideae, the richest subfamily in terms of morphological diversity and species number, to evaluate possible growth form evolutionary trends. Key results: The final concatenated matrix includes 6148 bp, of which 3400 (55.3 %) are invariant and 1597 (26.2%) are parsimony informative. Our phylogenetic results support previous studies showing the paraphyly of subfamily Pereskioideae, and the monophyly of Subfamilies Opuntioideae and Cactoideae. The monophyly of certain clades within them was also confirmed, however, para- or polyphyly was found to be persistent in different regions of the phylogeny. Main Cactoideae clades were found to have different ancestral growth forms; and convergence towards globose, arborescent or columnar forms occurred in different lineages. Conclusions: Our study provides a detailed hypothesis of relationships among cacti lineages, representing the most complete general phylogenetic framework available to date to understand evolutionary trends within Cactaceae.


Cacteae; Opuntioideae; Pachycereeae; parsimony ratchet; ppc; RAxML; rpl16; Trichocereeae; trnK/matK; trnL-trnF

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