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Citation for Study 13860

About Citation title: "Systematics, Biogeography, and Character Evolution of Sparganium (Typhaceae) – Diversification of a Widespread, Aquatic Lineage".
About Study name: "Systematics, Biogeography, and Character Evolution of Sparganium (Typhaceae) – Diversification of a Widespread, Aquatic Lineage".
About This study is part of submission 13860 (Status: Published).

Citation

Sulmann J.D., Drew B.T., Drummond C., Hayasaka E., & Sytsma K.J. 2013. Systematics, Biogeography, and Character Evolution of Sparganium (Typhaceae) – Diversification of a Widespread, Aquatic Lineage. American Journal of Botany, 100(10): 2023–2039.

Authors

  • Sulmann J.D.
  • Drew B.T. Phone 608-262-4422
  • Drummond C.
  • Hayasaka E.
  • Sytsma K.J. Phone 608-262-4490

Abstract

Premise of the study— Sparganium (Typhaceae), a genus of ±14 species, is relatively diverse among temperate aquatic genera. It includes wide-ranging circumboreal species, as well as endemics in Eurasia and North America. It presents the rare opportunity to investigate diversification, character evolution, and biogeographical relationships in a widespread temperate genus of aquatic monocots. We present a fossil-calibrated, molecular phylogeny based on analysis of two chloroplast and two nuclear markers with extensive taxon sampling within Sparganium. Within this framework, we examine character evolution in both habit and stigma number; and infer the ancestral area and biogeographic history of the genus. Methods— Data from two cpDNA and two nDNA markers were analyzed using the programs BEAST, Lagrange, S-DIVA, and BayesTraits. BEAST was used to simultaneously estimate phylogeny and divergence times, Lagrange and S-DIVA were used for biogeographical reconstruction, and BayesTraits was used to infer stigma number and habit evolution. Key results—Two major Sparganium clades were recovered with strong support: one composed of S. erectum and S. eurycarpum; and the other containing all remaining Sparganium. We propose to realign the subgenera to conform to these clades. Divergence time analysis suggests a Miocene crown origin but Pliocene diversification. Importantly, the floating-leaved habit has arisen multiple times in the genus, from emergent ancestors. Conclusions—Cooling trends during the Tertiary resulted in the isolation of Eurasian and North American taxa, while episodic glaciation and the rise of cool boreal climates in the Pliocene set the stage for multiple transitions to the floating growth form. Vicariance, long-distance dispersal, and habitat specialization are key mechanisms for Sparganium diversification.

Keywords

Sparganium, bur-reed, aquatic habit, biogeography, Pliocene, BEAST, monocot

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  • Canonical resource URI: http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S13860
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