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Citation for Study 2223

About Citation title: "The age and biogeography of Citrus and the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) in Australasia and New Caledonia.".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S2233 (Status: Published).


Crisp M., & Pfeil B. 2009. The age and biogeography of Citrus and the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) in Australasia and New Caledonia. American Journal of Botany, null.


  • Crisp M.
  • Pfeil B.


The geological history of Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, and SE Asia, has been complex, resulting in competing biogeographic hypotheses for taxa found here. Alternative hypotheses  Gondwanan vicariance, rafting terranes, long-distance dispersal  may be distinguished by different predicted divergence times between disjunct sister taxa. Taxa within Rutaceae subfamily Aurantioideae are ideal for testing these hypotheses because of their distributions. Therefore, the age of Rutaceae and subfamily Aurantioideae were estimated using molecular dating. One dataset comprised 51 sequences of rbcL and atpB with sampling across rosids and three fossil calibrations: crown Fabales+Fagales+Rosales (> 94 Ma), Fabaceae (> 51 Ma) and stem Ailanthus, Simaroubaceae (> 52 Ma). Another dataset comprised 81 Aurantioideae using > 8 kb of chloroplast sequence and secondary calibration. Confidence in estimated divergence times was explored by varying the root age, dating method (strict, local and relaxed clocks) and inclusion of internal calibrations. We conclude that the Rutaceae crown diverged in the Eocene (36.4  56.8 Ma, mean 47.6), whereas the Aurantioideae crown originated in the early Miocene (12.1  28.2 Ma, mean 19.8). This suggests that Gondwanan vicariance does not explain the distributions of extant Aurantioideae. Taxa found in New Caledonia may have arrived by three separate trans-oceanic dispersal events.

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