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Citation for Study 24902

About Citation title: "Parallel evolution of arborescent carrots (Daucus) in Macaronesia".
About Study name: "Parallel evolution of arborescent carrots (Daucus) in Macaronesia".
About This study is part of submission 24902 (Status: Published).


Frankiewicz K., Oskolski A., Banasiak L., Fernandes F., Reduron J., Reyes-betancort J.A., Szczeparska L., Al-sarraf M., Baczynski J., & Spalik K. 2020. Parallel evolution of arborescent carrots (Daucus) in Macaronesia. American Journal of Botany, 107(3): 1-19.


  • Frankiewicz K.
  • Oskolski A.
  • Banasiak L. (submitter) Phone +48500176425
  • Fernandes F.
  • Reduron J.
  • Reyes-betancort J.A.
  • Szczeparska L.
  • Al-sarraf M.
  • Baczynski J.
  • Spalik K.


Premise Despite intensive research, the pathways and driving forces behind the evolution of derived woodiness on oceanic islands remain obscure. The genus Daucus comprises mostly herbs (therophytes, hemicryptophytes) with few rosette treelets (chamaephytes) endemic to various Macaronesian archipelagos, suggesting their independent evolution. To elucidate the evolutionary pathways to derived woodiness, we examined phylogenetic relationships and the habit and secondary xylem evolution in Daucus and related taxa. Methods Sixty taxa were surveyed for molecular markers, life history, and habit traits. Twenty‐one species were considered for wood anatomical characters. A dated phylogeny was estimated using Bayesian methods. The evolution of selected traits was reconstructed using parsimony and maximum likelihood. Results Daucus dispersed independently to the Canary Islands (and subsequently to Madeira), Cape Verde, and the Azores in the late Miocene and Pleistocene. Life span, reproductive strategy, and life form were highly homoplastic; the ancestor of Daucus was probably a monocarpic, biennial hemicryptophyte. Rosette treelets evolved independently in the Canarian‐Madeiran lineage and in Cape Verde, the latter within the last 0.13 Myr. Treelets and hemicryptophytes did not differ in wood anatomy. Pervasive axial parenchyma in wood occurred more often in polycarpic rather than monocarpic species. Conclusions Life span and life form in Daucus are evolutionarily labile and may change independently of wood anatomy, which is related to plant reproductive strategy rather than to life form. Insular woodiness may evolve rapidly (as demonstrated in D. bischoffii), and in Daucus, it does not seem to be an adaptation to lower the risk of xylem embolism.


Apiaceae; Daucinae; habit evolution; insular woodiness; Melanoselinum; molecular dating; Monizia; secondary woodiness; Tornabenea; wood anatomy

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