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Citation for Study 564

About Citation title: "Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from ndhF sequence data.".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S388 (Status: Published).


Alverson W., Whitlock B., Nyffeler R., Bayer C., & Baum D. 1999. Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from ndhF sequence data. American Journal of Botany, 86(10): 1474-1486.


  • Alverson W.
  • Whitlock B.
  • Nyffeler R.
  • Bayer C.
  • Baum D.


William S. Alverson, Barbara A. Whitlock, Reto Nyffeler, Clemens Bayer, and David A. Baum. In press. Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from ndhF data. American Journal of Botany (12/21/98 version here). The monophyly of the group comprising the core malvalean families, Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae, was recently confirmed by molecular studies, but the internal structure of this clade is poorly understood. In this study, we examined sequences of the chloroplast ndhF gene (aligned length 2226 bp) from 70 exemplars representing 35 of the 40 putative tribes or subfamilies of core Malvales. The monophyly of one traditional family, the Malvaceae, was strongly supported in the trees resulting from these data, but the other three families, as traditionally circumscribed, are nonmonophyletic. In addition, the following relationships were well supported: (1) a clade (/Malvatheca) consisting of traditional Malvaceae and Bombacaceae (except some members of tribe Durioneae), plus Fremontodendron and Chiranthodendron, which are usually treated as Sterculiaceae; (2) a clade (/Malvadendrina) supported by a unique 21-bp (base pair) deletion and consisting of /Malvatheca, plus five additional subclades, including representatives of Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae, plus Durio and Neesia (both Durionieae); 3) a clade (/Byttneriina) with genera traditionally assigned to several tribes of Tiliaceae, plus exemplars of tribes Byttnerieae, Hermannieae, and Lasiopetaleae of Sterculiaceae. The most striking departures from traditional classifications are the following: Durio and relatives appear to be more closely related to Helicteres and Reevesia (Sterculiaceae) than to Bombacaceae; several genera traditionally considered as Bombacaceae (Camptostemon, Matisia, Phragmotheca, and Quararibea) or Sterculiaceae (Chiranthodendron and Fremontodendron) appear as sister lineages to the traditional Malvaceae; tribe Helictereae (Sterculiaceae) is polyphyletic; and Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae, as traditionally circumscribed, represent polyphyletic groups that cannot sensibly be maintained with their traditional limits for purposes of classification. We discuss morphological characters supporting the clades indicated by molecular data. These findings indicate extensive homoplasy of many morphological characters previously used to delineate taxonomic groups in core Malvales. The topologies here also suggest that /Malvatheca (the malvoid and bombacoid clades) do not have as a synapormophy monothecate anthers, as has been previously supposed but, instead, may be united by the dithecate, transversely septate (polysporangiate) anthers in basal members of both clades, from which monothecate anthers may have been derived at least twice. Key words: angiosperm phylogeny; phylogenetic nomenclature; rankless taxa; stamen evolution; Bombacaceae; Malvaceae; Malvales; Sterculiaceae; Tiliaceae. Baum, D. A., W. S. Alverson, and R. N. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3: 317-332. The phylogeny of the core Malvales (including plants traditionally placed in the families Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae) has been greatly clarified by recent molecular systematic studies. In this paper we explore the options available for incorporating this phylogenetic information into a classification for the group. We first discuss a range of options within the traditional system of nomenclature with the added constraint of only recognizing monophyletic groups. These schemes differ in the ranks applied and in the degree to which currently used names continue to apply to familiar groups. We then propose an alternative set of unranked names within the framework of phylogenetic nomenclature. This phylogenetic classification shares the same names as a recently published traditional classification, except that the phylogenetic names are distinguished by a clademark. We note some advantages of phylogenetic nomenclature: monophyly of taxa can be ass med; there is no limit to the number of nested clades that can be named; classifications are stable so long as phylogenetic knowledge does not change, and; it will be easy to establish useful data base resources. The traditional and phylogenetic classifications of the core Malvales are almost identical given current knowledge of phylogeny. Therefore, this group provides a controlled experiment with which to see how the two nomenclatural codes perform in practice as phylogenetic knowledge increases.


angiosperm phylogeny; Bombacaceae; Malvaceae; Malvales; ndhF; phylogenetic nomenclature; stamen evolution; Sterculiaceae; Tiliaceae

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