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Citation for Study 858

About Citation title: "Multiple origins of sequestrate fungi related to Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae).".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S636 (Status: Published).


Peintner U., Bougher N., Castellano M., Moncalvo J., Moser M., Trappe J., & Vilgalys R. 2001. Multiple origins of sequestrate fungi related to Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae). American Journal of Botany, 88(12): 2168-2179.


  • Peintner U.
  • Bougher N.
  • Castellano M.
  • Moncalvo J.
  • Moser M.
  • Trappe J.
  • Vilgalys R.


The aim of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and evolution of sequestrate fungi (with gastroid or partially exposed basidiomes) in relation to their gilled relatives from the Cortinariaceae (Basidiomycetes). Phylogenetic analyses of 151 ITS sequences from 77 gilled species and 37 sequestrate taxa were performed with PAUP* version 4.0D64 using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Sequestrate basidiome forms occur in all three major ectomycorrhizal lineages: the clades Cortinarius, Hebeloma/Hymenogaster/Naucoria, and Descolea. However, these forms do not appear within the saprobic outgroup Gymnopilus, indicating multiple origins of sequestrate forms from ectomycorrhizal ancestors. Additionally, within the Cortinarius clade sequestrate forms have multiple origins: emergent Cortinarius spp., Thaxterogaster, Quadrispora, Protoglossum and two Hymenogaster spp. (H. remyi, H. sublilacinus) share common ancestors with Cortinarius spp., but these sequestrate genera are not closely related to each other (with exception of Thaxterogaster and Quadrispora). Hymenogaster sensu stricto, Setchelliogaster, and Descomyces were placed in the two other major clades. Thus, sequestrate taxa evolved independently many times within brown-spored Agaricales. Furthermore, emergent, secotioid, and gastroid forms have evolved independently from each other, and so are not necessarily intermediate forms. After their establishment, these apparently morphologically stable taxa show a tendency to radiate.


Cortinarius; Descomyces; Descolea; Hymenogaster; phylogeny; Protoglossum; Thaxterogaster; Quadrispora

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