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Citation for Study 9999

About Citation title: "Molecular evidence of reticulate evolution in the subgenus Plantago (Plantaginaceae)".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S2335 (Status: Published).


Ishikawa N., Yokoyama J., & Tsukaya H. 2009. Molecular evidence of reticulate evolution in the subgenus Plantago (Plantaginaceae). American Journal of Botany, 96(9): 1627-1635.


  • Ishikawa N.
  • Yokoyama J.
  • Tsukaya H.


Polyploidization is one of the frequent evolutionary events in plants that has large influence on speciation and evolution of the genome. Worldwide-distributed subgenus Plantago is taxonomically complex group with high rates of polyploid. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses with a nuclear-encoding single-copy gene SUC1 (1.2–1.8 kb) revealed allopolyploidy in two common polyploids (tetraploid P. asiatica var. densiuscula and hexaploid P. formosana) distributed in Japan. Then we investigated 24 taxa representing all five sections of the subgenus Plantago and two taxa from subgenus Coronopus as the outgroup. Fifteen known polyploids and one putative polyploid, ranging from tetraploid to dodecaploid, were analyzed to examine occurrence of reticulate evolution among subgenus Plantago. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated by maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and Bayesian analyses. For the first time, our analysis provides a well-resolved phylogenetic tree of subgenus Plantago. Our analyses clearly indicated highly reticulate nature of subgenus Plantago. In addition, our data suggested the possibility of two independent long-distance dispersals from the Northern Hemisphere to Southern Hemisphere.

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