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Citation for Study 10169

About Citation title: "Invalidation of Hyperamoeba by transferring its species to other genera of Myxogastria.".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S2513 (Status: Published).


Fiore-donno A., Kamono A., Chao E., Fukui M., & Cavalier-smith T. 2010. Invalidation of Hyperamoeba by transferring its species to other genera of Myxogastria. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 57(2): 189-196.


  • Fiore-donno A.
  • Kamono A.
  • Chao E.
  • Fukui M.
  • Cavalier-smith T.


The genus Hyperamoeba Alexeieff, 1923 was established to accommodate an aerobic amoeba exhibiting three life stages amoeba, flagellate and cyst. As more species/strains were isolated, it became increasingly evident from SSU gene phylogenies and ultrastructure that Hyperamoeba is polyphyletic and its species occupy different positions within the class Myxogastria. To pinpoint Hyperamoeba strains within other myxogastrid genera we aligned numerous myxogastrid sequences: whole small subunit ribosomal (SSU or 18S rRNA) gene for 50 dark-spored (i.e. Stemonitida and Physarida) Myxogastria (including a new "Hyperamoeba"/Didymium sequence) and a ~400 bp SSU fragment for 147 isolates assigned to 10 genera of the order Physarida. Phylogenetic analyses show unambiguously that the type species Hyperamoeba flagellata is a Physarum (Physarum flagellatum comb. nov.) as it nests amongst other Physarum species as robust sister to Physarum didermoides. Our trees also allow the following allocations: five Hyperamoeba strains to the genus Stemonitis; Hyperamoeba dachnaya, Pseudodidymium cryptomastigophorum, and three other Hyperamoeba strains to the genus Didymium; and two further Hyperamoeba strains to the family Physaridae. We therefore abandon the polyphyletic and redundant genus Hyperamoeba. We discuss the implications for the ecology and evolution of Myxogastria, whose amoeboflagellates are more widespread than previous inventories supposed, being now found in freshwater and even marine environments.

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