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Citation for Study 11083

About Citation title: "Relationships within the Araceae: comparison of morphological patterns with molecular phylogenies".
About Study name: "Relationships within the Araceae: comparison of morphological patterns with molecular phylogenies".
About This study is part of submission 11073 (Status: Published).


Cusimano N., Bogner J., Mayo S., Wong S.Y., Hesse M., Hetterscheid W., Keating R.C., & French J. 2011. Relationships within the Araceae: comparison of morphological patterns with molecular phylogenies. American Journal of Botany, .


  • Cusimano N. (submitter) Phone +49 (0)89-17861251
  • Bogner J.
  • Mayo S.
  • Wong S.Y.
  • Hesse M.
  • Hetterscheid W.
  • Keating R.C.
  • French J.


Premise of the study: The first family-wide molecular phylogeny of the Araceae, a family of about 4000 species and 120 genera, became available in 1995, followed by a cladistic analysis of morpho-anatomical data in 1997. The most recent and comprehensive family-wide molecular phylogeny was published in 2008 and included species from 102 genera. Here, we reanalysed the molecular data with a more complete genus sampling and compared the resulting phylogeny with morphological and anatomical data with a view to contributing to a new formal classification of the Araceae. Methods: We analysed 113 aroid genera and 4,494 aligned nucleotides resulting from adding 11 genera to the 2008 molecular matrix. We also analysed 81 morphological characters in the context of the molecular phylogeny, using an extended version of the 1997 morpho-anatomical data set. Key Results: The resulting phylogeny is well resolved and supported and most of the 44 larger clades also have morphological or anatomical synapomorphies as well as ecological or geographic cohesion. Of the 44 clades, 16 are here newly circumscribed and informally named. However, some relationships remain poorly supported within the Aroideae subfamily. The most problematic placement is Calla within Aroideae, which conflicts with the distribution of morphological, anatomical and palynological character states. Conclusions: The comparison of the molecular analysis with morphological and anatomical data presented here represents an important basis for a new formal classification for the Araceae and the understanding of the evolution of this ancient family, one of the earliest monocot groups known in the fossil record.


Araceae; Calla; character evolution, classification; Lemnoideae; molecular phylogeny; phenotypic characterization

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