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Citation for Study 1570

About Citation title: "A phylogenetic analysis of higher-level gall wasps relationships (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S1515 (Status: Published).


Liljeblad J., & Ronquist F. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of higher-level gall wasps relationships (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Systematic Entomology, 28(3): 229-252.


  • Liljeblad J.
  • Ronquist F.


We present the most comprehensive analysis of higher-level relationships in gall wasps conducted thus far. The analysis was based on detailed study of the skeletal morphology of adults, resulting in 164 phylogenetically informative characters, complemented with a few biological characters. Thirty-seven cynipid species from thirty-one genera, including four genera of the apparently monophyletic Cynipini and almost all of the genera in the other tribes, were examined. The outgroup included exemplar species from three successively more distant cynipoid families: Figitidae (the sister group of the Cynipidae), Liopteridae and Ibaliidae. There was considerable homoplasy in the data, but many groupings in the shortest tree were nonetheless well supported, as indicated by bootstrap proportions and decay indices. Partitioning of the data suggested that the high level of homoplasy is characteristic of the Cynipidae and not the result of the amount of available phylogenetically conservative characters being exhausted. The analysis supported the monophyly of the Cynipini (oak gall wasps) which, together with the Rhoditini (the rose gall wasps), Eschatocerini and Pediaspidini formed a larger monophyletic group of gall inducers restricted to woody representatives of the eudicot subclass Rosidae. The inquilines (Synergini) were indicated to be monophyletic, whereas the Aylacini, primarily herb gall inducers, appeared as a paraphyletic assemblage of basal cynipid groups. The shortest tree suggests that the Cynipidae can be divided into three major lineages: one including the inquilines, the Aylacini genera associated with Rosaceae, and Liposthenes; one consisting entirely of Aylacini genera, among them Aulacidea, Isocolus and Neaylax; and one comprising the woody rosid gallers (the oak and rose gall wasps and allies), the Phanacis-Timaspis complex and the Aylacini genera associated with Papaveraceae.

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