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Citation for Study 1573

About Citation title: "Phylogeny of the Ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S1518 (Status: Published).


Moreau C., Bell C., Vila R., Archibald S., & Pierce N. 2006. Phylogeny of the Ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms. Science, 312: 101-104.


  • Moreau C.
  • Bell C.
  • Vila R.
  • Archibald S.
  • Pierce N.


We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), based on 4.5 kilobases of sequence data from six gene regions extracted from 139 of the 288 described extant genera, representing 19 of the 20 subfamilies. All but two subfamilies are recovered as monophyletic. Divergence time estimates calibrated by minimum age constraints from 43 fossils indicate that most of the subfamilies representing extant ants arose much earlier than previously proposed but only began to diversify during the Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene. This period also witnessed the rise of angiosperms and most herbivorous insects.

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