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Citation for Study 18491

About Citation title: "X-rays and virtual taphonomy reveal the first fossil record of Cissus (Vitaceae) in Africa: phylogenetic, biogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications".
About Study name: "X-rays and virtual taphonomy reveal the first fossil record of Cissus (Vitaceae) in Africa: phylogenetic, biogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications".
About This study is part of submission 18491 (Status: Published).

Citation

Adams N.F., Collinson M.E., Smith S.Y., Bamford M.K., Forest F., Malakasi P., Marone F., & Sykes D. 2016. X-rays and virtual taphonomy reveal the first fossil record of Cissus (Vitaceae) in Africa: phylogenetic, biogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications. American Journal of Botany, .

Authors

  • Adams N.F.
  • Collinson M.E.
  • Smith S.Y.
  • Bamford M.K.
  • Forest F. (submitter) Phone +44(0)20 8332 5396
  • Malakasi P.
  • Marone F.
  • Sykes D.

Abstract

Premise of the study: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Kenyan Miocene though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertake a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. Methods: Micro-computed tomography (ÁCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy. Virtual taphonomy, using SRXTM datasets, produced digital fossils to elucidate seed taphonomy. Phylogenetic relationships within Cissus were reconstructed using existing and newly produced DNA sequences for African species. Paleobiology and paleoecology were inferred from African nearest living relatives. Key results: The fossils are assigned to four new Cissus species, interpreted to have been climbers inhabiting a mosaic of riverine woodland and forest to more open habitats. Virtual taphonomy explains how complex mineral infill processes concealed key seed features, causing the previous taxonomic error. Newly sampled African species, with seeds most similar to the fossils belong to four clades within core Cissus, two of which are early diverging. Conclusions: Virtual taphonomy, combined with ÁCT and SRXTM imaging, has enabled recognition of the first fossil Cissus and Vitaceae from Africa with high phylogenetic diversity of Cissus established by the early Miocene. Phylogenetic and fossil data suggest intercontinental dispersals of Cissus before the Oligocene (Africa to South America) and during or after the Neogene (Africa to Asia), and provide supporting evidence for mosaic paleoenvironments inhabited by early Miocene hominoids.

Keywords

Hiwegi Formation; liana; Menispermicarpum; microCT; Miocene; paleoecology; Proconsul; seeds; SRXTM; virtual taphonomy

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About this resource

  • Canonical resource URI: http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S18491
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