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Citation for Study 1945

About Citation title: "Salmacisia, a new genus of Tilletiales: reclassification of Tilletia buchloŽana causing induced hermaphroditism in buffalograss.".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S1927 (Status: Published).


Chandra A., & Huff D. 2007. Salmacisia, a new genus of Tilletiales: reclassification of Tilletia buchloŽana causing induced hermaphroditism in buffalograss. Mycologia, 100(1): 81-93.


  • Chandra A.
  • Huff D.


For 118 yrs, the fungal parasite Tilletia buchloŽana 1 has been known to induce female sex organs (pistils) in male plants of buffalograss, making them hermaphrodite. Here we report the life cycle characteristics and phylogeny for T. buchloŽana based on morphology and large subunit region of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU-rDNA) in order to accurately place pistil smut within order Tilletiales. We found that T. buchloŽana induces hermaphroditism in not only male sex forms of buffalograss by inducing the development of otherwise vestigial pistils, but also in female sex forms by inducing hypertrophy of otherwise vestigial stamens (male sex organs). The fungus also induces the development of additional pistillate flowers in both infected male and female plants. Due to its pistil inducing effects, we refer to T. buchloŽana as pistil smut. Pistil smut exhibits a combination of morphological and life cycle characteristics that are unique among species of order Tilletiales. Phylogenetic analyses of nLSU-rDNA sequences using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and genetic distance-based methods show that pistil smut exhibits an elevated rate of nucleotide substitution and is as, or more, distant from Tilletia species than the basal group Erratomyces patelli. As such, pistil smut occupies a phylogenetic position outside the current taxonomic circumscription of genus Tilletia. Therefore, a new Latin binomial combination Salmacisia buchloŽana is proposed as a sister taxon to Tilletia in order to accurately describe the phylogenetic position of pistil smut.

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