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Citation for Study 231

About Citation title: "Major clades of the angiosperms.".
About This study was previously identified under the legacy study ID S2x5x96c18c06c58 (Status: Published).


Dahlgren R., & Bremer K. 1985. Major clades of the angiosperms. Cladistics, 1: 349-368.


  • Dahlgren R.
  • Bremer K.


Our knowledge of fundamental angiosperm interrelationships is still very incomplete. The absence of a narrowly circumscribed gymnosperm outgroup, ideally the sister group, makes character evaluation, necessary for a cladistic analysis, difficult. According to current views the superorder Magnoliiflorae with a number of other groups, for example the monocotyledons, may represent a complex of families near the base of the angiosperms. Interrelationships of groups within the monocotyledons are much better understood than those between groups within the dicotyledons. A cladogram of monocotyledon orders based on earlier work by R. Dahlgren, H. T. Clifford, and F. N. Rasmussen is presented. A data matrix for a sample of the angiosperms with 61 characters for 49 taxa, mostly magnoliifloran and related families, is presented. The characters are polarized mainly according to the current view that the primitive angiosperm morphotype is a woody dicotyledon with strobiloid flowers. As an alternative the matrix is adjusted following W. C. Burger's conjecture that the primitive angiosperm was a herbaceous monocotyledon with trimerous flowers. Both matrices were run in a computerized parsimony analysis, resulting in numerous equally parsimonious solutions. This result is illustrative of the great homoplasy in the available character information, and also of how little actually is known about fundamental angiosperm interrelationships or phylogeny.

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